Ossuário de Tiago - James Ossuary
Geologists: Ossuary Patina Faked
The Geological Survey of Israel (GSI), today publicly clarified its position regarding the authenticity of the James Ossuary and the Jehoash Inscription. In a letter sent to Uzi Dahari, deputy director of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), GSI director Amos Bein states that its representative to the IAA's committee established to determine the authenticity of the objects, Avner Ayalon, determined that the patina covering both the letters and surface of the Jehoash Inscription, as well as the inscription on the James Ossuary, "could not have formed under natural climactic conditions...that prevailed in the Judea Mountains during the last 2000 years." Furthermore, the patina contained in the inscription on the James Ossuary is "significantly different from the oxygen isotopic composition in the surface patina of [the ossuary] and of patina of authentic ossuaries stored in [Jerusalem's] Rockefeller Museum." An internal GSI committee reviewed and approved Dr. Ayalon's conclusions.
Defender of 1st-century Jesus Inscription Fight Back Following Israeli Fraud Charge
The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) has greatly amplified the cries of fraud leveled against a purported first-century inscription that names Jesus. The IAA stated in June that the stone box on which the inscription appears was ancient but the words on it appear to have been inscribed in modern times. In a word: hoax. Defenders of the inscription's authenticity have been fighting back, saying other experts disagree and arguing that everyone should at least wait to evaluate the IAA's full scientific report, which isn't out yet (...) The chief promoter of the box's authenticity is Hershel Shanks, editor of Biblical Archaeology Review magazine, which published Lemaire's article, and co-author of a book on the find, "The Brother of Jesus" (HarperSanFrancisco). Given the competing opinions among experts, Shanks -- who has plenty at stake -- is urging everyone to withhold judgment pending the full IAA report and further scholarly assessment. But in the meantime, Shanks argues that the 15-member IAA investigating committee is actually endorsing the view of one scholar, Yuval Goren of Tel Aviv University, the only member of the panel with the necessary geological and chemical expertise. "Professor Goren may be right, but we need to wait for further developments before arriving at this conclusion," Shanks asserts. The IAA announcement raised a highly technical point about oxygen isotopes that led to the conclusion that the patina (surface film) was a water-and-chalk paste, applied to imitate ancient weathering. Goren quips that this paste is the "James bond." Shanks says it hasn't been proven that modern paste can successfully fake ancient patina and says the oxygen isotopes could be explained if, as owner Golan said, his mother partly cleaned and scrubbed the inscription, perhaps with hot water (...) Shanks' pro-ossuary magazine will continue to track the ongoing controversy, as will the anti-ossuary Archaeology magazine.
By Richard N. Ostling - DodgeGlobe.com - Friday, July 11, 2003
Preliminary Discussion Concerning The So-Called Ossuary Of Jacob From A Tel Aviv Collection
No começo do artigo, o autor alerta:
Após um amplo panorama das discussões
sobre o Ossuário de Tiago, bem documentado com 82 notas de rodapé
atualizadas até março de 2003, o autor conclui:
By Zdzislaw J. Kapera - Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland
Bible and Interpretation - July 2003
From: “The Polish Journal of Biblical Research” Vol. 2, No. 1 (3), December 2002 [printed in May 2003!]. Copyrighted by Zdzislaw J. Kapera and The Enigma Press 2003.
Dealer Charged With Jesus Forgeries
(...) Dealer Oded Golan was arrested Monday at his home in Tel Aviv, police said, on suspicion of forging and dealing in fake antiquities. He was brought to a Jerusalem court, where police showed equipment for making forgeries they said was found in his home, including stencils, stones and partially completed forgeries. The police said Golan was being held at the Jerusalem police lockup on a four-day detention order. Golan was involved in the discovery of two items that shook the religious and archaeological world - an ossuary, or burial box, with the inscription, ``James, the brother of Jesus,'' leading to speculation that it referred to the brother of Jesus of Nazareth. Also, a shoebox-sized tablet was found, inscribed with instructions for caring for the Jewish Temple, in wording similar to that of the Bible. Called the ``Joash inscription,'' it purported to be rare physical evidence backing up the biblical narrative. However, from the beginning, questions were raised about the authenticity of the two items, and after exhaustive studies, the Israel Antiquities Authority declared last month that they were forgeries.
By Ian Deitch, Associated Press Writer - The Guardian - Tuesday July 22, 2003 7:59 PM
Royal Ontario Museum Statement: Oded Golan’s arrest/ James Ossuary
July 23, 2003
The once-celebrated James Ossuary, heralded by the international press last fall as the first physical evidence for the existence of Jesus Christ, was found Monday, July 21, in a filthy rooftop bathroom during a police raid on ossuary owner Oded Golan's Tel Aviv apartment building.
Archaeology - July 24, 2003
The James Ossuary Yet Again
The arrest of Oded Golan on July 23rd by the Israeli police on suspicion of forging antiquities, among them the Jehoash Temple inscription and the so-called “James” ossuary (see Ha’aretz, English edition, p.3, July 23), should give pause to both the media and a large portion of the scholarly world. The media frenzy, which greeted both of these supposed discoveries, was fed by journalistic desire for a big “Holy Land” story. Insofar as the BAR promoted the authenticity of the James ossuary through its premature publication by Andre Lemaire and its subsequent exhibition at the Royal Ontario Museum as well as its TV promotion on the Discovery Channel, one should have been more suspicious of its provenance and ownership. In an unprecedented plenary presentation of the SBL in Toronto, after numerous presentations in which I was the only doubting Thomas, Golan was allowed to defend the ossuary’s genuineness in front of thousands of scholars and hundreds of the media. No one seemed to mind that he had much to gain from the exposure including monetary reward, advertisement as a major supplier of “biblical” antiquities, etc. It was a dynamic combination: BAR and a dealer, making hay at SBL and the ROM. I was suspicious after having viewed the artifact for a number of reasons. First...
By Eric Meyers, Professor of Judaic Studies, Duke University, Department of Religion
Bible and Interpretation - July 2003
Forgery Mystery Creates a Pandora's Box
Unanswered questions surrounding the James ossuary are pitting experts against each other
In a profession not normally noted for its belligerence, the strange case of Oded Golan and the James ossuary -- potentially one of recent archeology's most important discoveries -- is generating a nasty little firefight (...) The dispute has already besmirched the reputation of Golan, the ossuary's owner. Yesterday, the middle-aged Israeli entrepreneur, an important collector of biblical artifacts, was released from an Israeli jail, where he had been questioned for five days on suspicion of forgery. No charges were laid (...) The IAA report was signed by 14 prominent Israeli academics. One has since defected, saying the oxygen isotope test on which the IAA based its conclusion was flawed. Even more problematically, Amos Bein, director of the Geological Survey of Israel, which conducted the test, is now saying he's agnostic on the question of the box's legitimacy.
By Michael Posner -The Globe and Mail - Saturday, Jul. 26, 2003
Experts, Dealer Clash Over James Ossuary's Authenticity
July 27, 2003
Final Report of the Examining Commitees for the Yehoash Inscription and James Ossuary
Summary of Israel Antiquities Authority Report
(...) After consulting with senior IAA advisors, IAA Director-General, Mr. Shuka Dorfman resolved to make every possible effort to examine the genuineness of the two finds. He then consulted scholars from various disciplines at the IAA and others, and set up two expert committees to examine the items from a scientific aspect and reach a conclusion regarding their authenticity. One committee was designated as the Writing and Content Committee and would use its knowledge of epigraphy and paleography to investigate whether the material content and language used are compatible with the Hebrew and Aramaic of the designated period. The second committee, the Materials and Patina Committee was to examine the substance of the materials, composition of the patina, additional materials present and perform any and every possible examination, including a morphological study of the items.
At the first meeting of the two committees...
Biblical Archaeology Society - July 2003
Final Reports on the Yehoash Inscription and James Ossuary from the Israeli Antiquities Authority
1. Final Report Of The Examining Committees For The Yehoash Inscription And James Ossuary
Esther Eshe, Tal Ilan, Dr. Avner Ayalon, Orna Cohen
2. Radiocarbon Dating
7. Final Report Of The Committees
8.The Jehoash Inscription
Bible and Interpretation - August 2003
Copyright © 1999-2013 Airton José da Silva. Todos os direitos reservados. Mapa do Site - Sitemap.