Ossuário de Tiago - James Ossuary
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Clique nos links abaixo para ver o texto completo da notícia ou artigo, dos quais transcrevo aqui apenas alguns parágrafos. Se você não lê inglês, copie o texto e cole-o em algum tradutor disponível na web, como o Google Tradutor ou outros. Convém observar, porém, que, com o passar do tempo, alguns artigos ou notícias foram retirados de seus endereços originais pelos jornais e revistas que os publicaram, não sendo mais possível ler o texto na íntegra...
Esta página foi escolhida por Torrey Seland, Professor de Estudos Bíblicos no Volda University College, Volda, Noruega, como o Link do Mês, na edição Janeiro-Fevereiro de 2003 do site Resource Pages for Biblical Studies.
Urna com nome de Jesus causa controvérsia entre pesquisadores
A inscrição em um antigo ossário, que pode ser a primeira indicação arqueológica da existência de Jesus, tem causado ceticismo entre diversos especialistas. Os dizeres "Tiago, filho de José, irmão de Jesus" estão gravados em aramaico --língua próxima ao hebreu-- numa urna funerária de pedra encontrada em Jerusalém, datada do século 1º de nossa era, segundo o paleógrafo André Lemaire. Ele anunciou sua teoria na última edição da revista "Biblical Archaeology Review".
Folha Online: 23.10.2002 – 11h46
Arqueólogos israelenses analisam ossário com nome de Jesus
sub-diretor da Repartição de Antiguidades de Israel, Uzi Dahari, afirmou
que, na sua opinião, o ossário do século 1 recentemente encontrado tem
"fortes probabilidades" de ser de Tiago, irmão de Jesus. O
ossário tem uma inscrição em língua aramaica que diz "Tiago,
filho de José, irmão de Jesus". Os arqueólogos estão agora
analisando a inscrição, para determinar se é original ou se foi feita
posteriormente à utilização do ossário. Se for confirmada sua
autenticidade, esse seria o primeiro objeto arqueológico a confirmar a
existência de Jesus. Feito
em pedra calcária, ele encontra-se vazio e pertence a um colecionador
israelense que pediu anonimato. Porém, ele disse que a caixa foi
adquirida de um comerciante árabe, que a teria achado na aldeia árabe de
Siluwan, junto à Cidade Velha de Jerusalém.
Evidence Of Jesus Written In Stone
Ossuary Of Jesus’ Brother Backs Up Biblical Accounts
After nearly 2,000 years, historical evidence for the existence of Jesus has come to light literally written in stone. An inscription has been found on an ancient bone box, called an ossuary, that reads “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus.” This container provides the only New Testament-era mention of the central figure of Christianity and is the first-ever archaeological discovery to corroborate Biblical references to Jesus.
Biblical Archaeology Review - November/December 2002
Possible Earliest Reference of Jesus Found
Scholars say a nondescript limestone box, looted from a Jerusalem cave and held secretly in a private collection in Israel, could be the first-ever reference to Jesus in the world's archaeological record. The box is an ossuary, used by Jews at the time of Christ to hold the bones of the deceased. (...) "I was very excited," said French philologist and epigrapher Andre Lemaire, who was invited by the ossuary's owner to take a look at it this spring. "Could it be James the brother of Jesus? There was no mention of Nazareth, but it was very impressive.."
washingtonpost.com - Monday, October 21, 2002; 12:30 PM
Box May Be Oldest Link to Jesus
Does the James' Ossuary really refer to Jesus Christ?
There are still many questions that need to be answered
Is it a fake? Dr. Lemaire has brought in experts from several different areas of archaeology, archaeogeology, ancient writing styles, and carving techniques. Their verdict is that there is no evidence of modern tampering. Where was the ossuary discovered? That remains unknown, for it was stolen from its original site by gravediggers. This means that there is no scientific or archaeological record of where the box was buried or of the items that were in the ground around it. Not only does this mean that it cannot be proven that the ossuary comes from the Jerusalem area, it also means that it cannot be dated through archaeological criteria (...) In what Aramaic dialect is the inscription written, and is that dialect appropriate for first-century Jerusalem? It turns out that although the dialect of the inscription can be made to fit into first-century Jerusalem, it actually fits much better with the Galilean dialect of the late second to sixth century. There are two linguistic indications that suggest the dialect of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, which was used in texts and inscriptions from Galilee of a century or more later.
Bible and Interpretation - 24.10.2002 - By Paul Flesher, Director Religious Studies Program University of Wyoming
ANE - Ancient Near East
ANE (Ancient Near East - Antigo Oriente Médio) é uma mailing list de pesquisas e estudos do Antigo Oriente Médio, desde o vale do Indo até o vale do Nilo e do começo da civilização humana na região até o surgimento do islamismo. Muito interessante para pesquisadores e estudantes interessados em acompanhar o debate atual sobre vários temas ligados a esta região. A inscrição na lista, mantida pelo Instituto Oriental da Universidade de Chicago, é aberta a todos. A discussão sobre o ossuário de Tiago - NY Times: "Jerusalem Artifact" ou "Ossuary of James" - pode ser lida em
'James, brother of Jesus'?
The Rev. Joseph Fitzmyer, professor emeritus of Catholic University, told United Press International. Shanks called Fitzmyer "one of the world's leading experts in 1st-century Aramaic and a pre-eminent Dead Sea Scroll editor." (Fitzmyer, initially troubled by an unusual spelling of the word "brother," did some research and found other examples from the same period.) In a telephone interview, Fitzmyer noted that in Lemaire's article the Frenchman concluded: "It seems very probable that this is the ossuary of James of the New Testament." But earlier on the same page, Lemaire wrote: "Nothing in this ossuary inscription confirms the identification." Surely, however, Lemaire was making a pro forma distinction between probability and certitude. The Rev. John P. Meier, a professor of Theology at the University of Notre Dame, Ind., said converging lines of probabilities make it more likely than not that the Jesus referred to is Jesus of Nazareth. Meier, a Roman Catholic priest, is an expert on 1st century Palestinian Judaism and author of the four-volume series "A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus." "What are we left with but weighing probabilities?" Meier asked in a phone interview from South Bend. "It's one thing to have scattered probabilities. It's another thing to have lines of probabilities all converging at one point."
UPI - United Press International - By Lou Marano From the Life & Mind Desk Published 10/25/2002 7:45 PM
Explorator é uma newsletter sobre
arqueologia e história, distribuída livremente via e-mail. Excelente
fonte de informação sobre a arqueologia e a história do Antigo Oriente
Médio. Para receber Explorator, inscreva-se mandando um e-mail em branco
. As mensagens antigas de Explorator podem ser lidas em http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/Explorator/. Explorator 5.26, distribuída no dia 27.10.2002 traz uma série
de links para o "ossuário de Tiago".
E na Explorator 5.27, distribuída em 03.11.2002, pode-se ler:
the James Ossuary was the big news last week, I guess the
Ossuary Was Genuine,
The James Ossuary and
Final Report on the James Ossuary
The report concentrates solely on the evidence of the writing system. As the evidence requires extensive discussions of background material, in order to keep this report within reasonable limits, people are referred to known experts in their fields on linguistic determination*, materials**, and textual evidence.*** (...) The ossuary itself is undoubtedly genuine; the well executed and formal first part of the inscription is a holographic original by a literate (and wealthy) survivor of Jacob Ben Josef sometime during the Herodian period. The second part of the inscription bears the hallmarks of a fraudulent later addition, probably around the 3rd or 4th centuries, and is questionable to say the least.
By Rochelle I. S. Altman - co-coordinator of IOUDAIOS-L
James Ossuary Inscription
I find the James ossuary
inscription fascinating for many reasons, not least of which are the
reactions it has produced. Its discovery has sent many people scurrying
into separate ideological camps to prepare for battle. Some already
believe that the box is truly authentic and once held the bones of Saint
James, while others declare, seemingly without a doubt, that it is
obviously a fake. The inscription is currently a hot topic on several
online scholarly forums. A few individuals posting to these forums have
garnered quite a bit of public attention (or at least net wide public
attention) for their views. One such individual is Dr.
Rochelle Altman. Dr. Altman believes that the newly discovered ossuary,
itself, and the "first part" of its inscription are authentic
while the "second part" of the inscription is a fake. She has
expressed these views in the Ioudaios-L
(of which she is a co-coordinator) and Crosstalk2
forums as well as in an online web magazine by the name of Jewsweek
(...) Dr. Altman has recently posted her "Final Report"
concerning the ossuary on several websites. Unfortunately, though she has
modified her position slightly from what I have addressed above, I believe
that many of the things that I have proposed still stand against her
arguments in a fairly strong way.
By Bryan Cox - Bryan's Biblical Links - Plano, TX - November, 2002
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